In Canada there is a well-established provincially directed policy framework for the management of invasive species. Legislation under provincial weed acts provides municipal government enforcement powers to control the spread of invasive vegetation. This framework is well studied and came about in the 1960s around the same time that Integrated Pest Management (IPM) frameworks were being established.
The adoption of this legislation came about in recognition of the economic impact of invasive species and availability of tools to address outbreaks. According to the Government of Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) the annual report (2014) identifies the impact of invasive species is CDN$30 billion dollars annually.
After 50 years of plan execution invasive species are a growing concern and in 2004 the federal government worked with provincial and territorial governments to develop “An Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Canada”. The national strategy sought to safeguard Canada’s native biodiversity and protect domesticated plants and animals from invasive alien species.
The plan did not include consideration for climate change considerations and in the proceeding decade there have not been substantial reforms to account for adaptation strategies or recognition of the interaction between climate change and invasive species reflected in policy or legislation (Pyke, 2008).
Indigenous groups across the world are often acknowledged as guardians or keepers of the land having lived harmoniously in a symbiotic relationship engrained in culture, religion and self-identification. Such indigenous perspectives are well researched in literature and has been embraced in litigation defending the environment (Jamieson, 2008). This relationship can be seen in more recent recognition in environmental education through the use of the term traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) as a way of understanding Indigenous practices for ecosystem management (Berkes, Colding, and Folke, 2000).